Ditching Patents Source And Copyright For The Greater Good

Open source was introduce in the latter part of the 1970s and early 1980s to help conserving. The shared ethos on which the early computer science was create. Since then, it has expanded far beyond its initial scope. And has now been the basis for the development of numerous creative work.

Patent law is also gear toward a similar goal however, it is gear towards individuals rather than groups. What does the popularity of open source mean that it is possible. That patent law as we understand it, is about to alter?

What Is Open Source And How Does It Work?

Source code for software (the line of codes which compose the program. Is it’s machine that makes it work, and also the instruction manual that runs alongside it. It is therefore valuable source. But, should it kept in lock and key, or be share with other people?

Open-source software advocates adopt the opposite perspective. Through sharing code source with other developers it’s possible to establish an open development community.

The Open Source Institute asserts that the benefits to software applications through. This collaboration approach include better quality, higher reliability. More flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in”.

A particular section of the open-source movement, known as free software advocates. Advocates for sharing of source code not simply because. These objectives justify the method however, but because of ethical reasons. They believe that society should encourage voluntary cooperation among its citizens and co-operation is more important than copyright.

Open Source, In The Real World

The market is flood with open-source software, but the most well-known example is likely to be most likely the Linux kernel. A program created in the year the year 1991 with Finnish computer engineer Linus Torvalds.

It is the Linux kernel forms part of the wider package of free and open software. GNU/Linux distributions, such as Ubuntu and RedHat. They are operating systems of their own and offer a free alternative in place of Windows or OSX.

Even though these GNU/Linux distributions hold a tiny 1percent market share, Linux has a significant presence in the educational, government as well as business market. Websites that are familiar to you like Google, Amazon, and Wikipedia all depend on GNU/Linux.

However, it’s not just within the OS that it is open source which rules the internet. Open source Apache web server powers around 64% of all websites, and 9percent that run by the open-source nginx server.

(GNU/)Linux is an example of the L in the popular LAMP stack, which is a collection of open-source tools that are commonly employ for web development. The remaining letters of LAMP refer to the Apache web server and the MySQL database engine, and the other programming languages PHP, Perl or Python in turn.

Beyond The Web

However, open-source software doesn’t have to be limited in web-base development. If there’s a piece software used on a regular basis, it’s likely to have an open-source (and consequently, free) version that you can download.

Do you need a web browser? Try Firefox or Chromium. Are you fed up of spending thousands of dollars to purchase Microsoft Office? Try LibreOffice or OpenOffice or AbiWord. Are you looking to edit your images without having to pay for Photoshop? Try the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP).

It is possible that you carry open-source software in your pockets. This Linux kernel is the core of Android an free mobile operating system that powers various tablets and smartphones like Samsung Galaxy Tab. Samsung Galaxy Tab.

Due to the success of open source projects, it’s not a surprise that this model for software development has gained traction in a wide range from non-software fields.

It is usually in cases where there exists a comparable source, or know-how that would otherwise protecte under traditional copyright. When it comes to open-source, the sharing the knowledge is not just permitted it’s strongly encouraged.

Creative Commons

Creative Commons licences (under which this article as well as all other articles in The Conversation are published) allow a variety in creative rights to literature or various artistic works traditionally publish under copyright.

Although publishers aren’t entirely supportive who are quite content with traditional copyright , the advantages for authors (such as, for example, increased dissemination) have led to an increase in pressure, particularly within the academic community in order to tear down the walls. Similar initiatives are in place to allow access to data in public repositories and government agencies.

Open Hardware

Due to the fact that software is dependent on hardware as well as hardware it’s not surprising that the open-source model has taken hold in the world of electronics. It’s different from open-sources software, since it’s hardware that’s available to everyone to explore.

Open source refers to information about the hardware that is open sources part refers to the information on the hardware require to reverse engineer the hardware including circuit layouts along with the components utilized and the software that is embedded into the devices.

One of the most significant successes in this regard can found in the Arduino micro-controller, which is essentially unofficial computer-base circuit boards of which over 300,000 units were sold. There are many other examples, such as open-source agricultural equipment, as well as DNA testing equipment.

Good As A Feast Imagine A Brighter Food Future

The report of the World Economic Forum’s report for 2017 about the food system’s future. Looks at how food systems around the world will look like in 2030. The four scenarios it suggests is particularly appealing.

To build a world in which everyone can eat healthy and not damaging the environment. We require better concepts, a dazzling imagination and the proper tools. The WEF report suggests four possible scenarios.

Unchecked consumption: excessive consumption of resources and trade-related trade causes environmental. Catastrophe as well as extreme global warming while corporations and rich nations continue to exploit resources around the world.

The most prosperous survive resources: consumption that is resource-intensive. With the limitation of trading and rights to intellectual property. Enlarge the gap between the rich and the people in need, while environmental challenges and climate change exacerbate.

Local is the new global the use of resources efficiently and the trading restrictions allow. Countries with abundant resources to sustain themselves and protect their environment. However, those with poor agriculture land are faced with a tough decision between consuming too much resources or risking starvation.

Open-Source Sustainability Food

Open-source sustainability, sustainable consumption and trade. That is strong help ensure food security while also helping to protect the natural environment. However, relying on food products from all over the world can mean. That local extreme weather as well as political or economic storms can affect everyone around the globe.

The report’s authors assert that the shift in demand towards efficiency or resource intensive. Consumption and market connectivity are two key uncertainty. That will affect whether food systems are able to sustainably and sustainably. Provide food for all the 8.5 billion people expected to live on the world by 2030.

The report emphasizes that all of its scenarios are feasible and are a winner and a loser. Even in the open source sustainability scenario such as the one described above. Individuals might not be able to pay the price tag of eco-friendly priced food. This may include the cost of regulating the quality of water and paying. Fair wages to employees, and improved animal well-being. However, it’s not clear if the scenarios are feasible; the idea of consuming less might not suffice.

Markets And Efficiency Food

The evidence is indisputable We are using more resources than Earth can replenish. Ayoind in order to sustain ourselves, we must reduce our consumption.

There are many reasons for why making use of resources more efficiently isn’t enough. Consider that the Earth as a pond for fish. In our pond, a every day a new fish hatches each day (a replenishing resource). However, if we consume 1.6 daily fish (just as we’re making use of 1.6 Earth’s worth of energy) then the time comes that the water will be depleted regardless of how well cooking, preserving, and consume the fish.

The improved production processes themselves don’t reduce the total consumption of resources. Consuming less is the best alternative. However, our systems and models of development are based on the assumption that consumption and economic growth are vital to living a happy living.

Can we truly change our eating habits and consumption patterns enough without rethinking the base? The suggestions in the report like consumer education, new marketing strategies or business models that are new have been test without much success.

Consumption Of Resources

The new world, second scenario of the WEF report, which assumes that the consumption of resources is characterize by a lack of market connectivity. In the words of the report it is able to avoid the risk of political and economic stressors that the connected markets of the Open-source sustainability model present.

However, it comes at cost. The report’s authors suggest that those who rely on imports will have difficulty feeding their populations without markets, and that innovations could be difficult to spread.

Does this make sense? Open knowledge and technology do not require markets to function and expand as Wikipedia and arXiv, which houses of more than a million scientific papers has proven. It’s also a matter about whether food can be consider an object of exchange or a resource that everyone is entitle to. In the end, everyone has to consume food.

The report does not offer examples of strong institutions which could limit the effects on market connections, for instance the danger of transnational corporations dominating the global food and seed markets.

Better Food Ideas

If the objective is healthy food and a healthy environment for all as well as the future generations and all other species, maybe we should consider more than just nutrition. One better goal could be food sovereignty, which is define by the Nyeleni Declaration as.

The right of all people to nutritious and culturally appropriate food that is produce using environmentally sustainable and sustainable practices and the right of each individual to decide on what they want to eat as well as their farming system.

To accomplish this it is necessary to cultivate food by using agroecology. This means, using the knowledge of biodiversity and ecosystems to improve the way we conduct agriculture. Additionally regional food systems built on self-reliance and local currencies will permit fair trade, as well as ensure that the food supply is always available.

Reduce Production

Degrowth, a term and a movement, is a strategy to make use of and reduce production in order to improve human health and improving environmental conditions. It may help us move away from excessive consumption and the need to grow by redefining happiness in a way that is social rather than individually.

What better way to relax and live the good living (or buen vivir) of cooking and dining with your loved ones and friends instead of battling to purchase the most expensive vehicle or the most expensive house?

Through open knowledge sharing instead of restrictive copyright and patents you can exchange anything from blueprints for 3D-printed agriculture tools to textbooks with open access that cover the fundamentals of sustainability and how cities can contribute to the creation of sustainable food systems that are not having to rely on market connectivity to help spread the idea of innovation.

Open Soil Science Technology Is Helping Us Discover The Mysteries

Do you have the time to take moment to think about the soil beneath your feet? Leonardo da Vinci said: We know more about the movement of celestial bodies than about the soil underfoot. But, our existence as humans as well as our existence on earth is directly. Linked to the health of a tiny layer of soil that covers the earth.

Soil supplies society with vital foods, feed, fiber and raw materials. In addition to being the home of more than a quarter of earth’s biodiversity. They also are the biggest natural carbon storage reservoirs on Earth and, despite being extremely active, they are extremely fragile.

Take a tree down and it may reseed in 50 years, however. The soil will be destroyed by 10 cm and you’ll have to wait for 1000 years to be able to get it back. Without soil our planet will be a mystery to us. And would look more than the barren, inhospitable terrain of Moon as well as Mars.

In the past we did not realize how deep the ground lies beneath our feet. As with all mysteries, a little digging is needed. To make soils fully known and for their story to be revealed

If they can be seen there are a variety of questions that come up. What does the change in color and depth indicate? What is the amount of carbon stored? Are the soils dense or thin, damaged, or healthy? It is vital to answer these questions however, it is a major problem that could require years of instruction.

Online Soil Resources

Researchers who are working in the field of Open Soil Science data and technology recently met. In the Netherlands to discuss the latest as well as future advancements in soil science for citizens. Through the development of electronic tools and making them accessible. We are hoping to expose the secrets of soil with the wider community and increase. The spread and accessibility of soil observations as well as our understanding of soil characteristics across the globe. This will enable us to create specific strategies to protect this precious resource.

If you’re looking to learn how the soil works that surrounds you then the SoilGrids system. Offers open access to a wide range of soil characteristics and kinds. Its online World Soil Information Service (WoSIS) as well as the Virtual World Soil Museum. Provide details on a variety of soil types across the world and provide. High-resolution images of soil profiles and specific explanations of each soil horizons.

These websites (and there are numerous more) provide a fantastic beginning point familiar. With soil to ensure that land-users and farmers are aware of the processes. That lead to the development of soil and how it impacts soil. Health and the functioning of ecosystems like carbon storage.

Applications For Ground

Different people may have different expectations of soil-related apps. Gardeners and farmers working in the field are often concerned about soil fertility. While educators in classrooms might be looking to explain the soil’s. Variety and the role of soil in the huge natural variation of landscapes around the world.

No matter what expectations the user may have regardless of expectations. Applications for smartphones and other online resources can assist people. Explore and comprehend the many ways to use soils, and help to emphasize how beautiful. Diverse, and significance of this under-appreciated natural resource.

The my Soil app, created through the British Geological Survey in 2012 It aims at bringing awareness of the variety of soils characteristics across Europe and also provides the ability to gather photographs and data about the soils around you. It is designed for non-experts More than 50,000 people are examining soils surrounding them and have contributed nearly 4000 photos around the world.

Soil Explorer created by the ISEE network between 2015 and 2017 It demonstrates how soils change across different scales and the reasons what this means. This application provides a frame of understanding, especially for people who wish to learn how soilscapes differ in the context of various types of landscapes and climates.

Soil Especially Wet

Why is my soils color red and grey in the other?, My soils especially wet when compare to different soils?. You can, for instance, explore the areas that were recently affect by the hurricane Harvey within Houston, Texas, and find a lot of the soils that were flood in the form of recent alluvium (soils materials which left behind by water) and show the significant connection between soils properties and flooding.

This information can be use to aid in the making of decisions such as the best location to build homes when local planning is insufficient or maps aren’t readily accessible. The maps of properties on soils built upon the extensive soils survey data that is available in the US and seven states on the internet and more to be add in the near future.

Soil Organic Carbon

Within Scotland, Soils Organic Carbon Information Technology (SOCIT), create in collaboration with James Hutton Institute, was develop by James Hutton Institute in 2015 utilizes the location of the user and the color of the soils in order to determine the quantity of organic matter present in the topsoil. The application (available to download for Android as well as Apple) is expect to soon extend its capabilities to the UK as well as Europe.

Organic carbon in soils is the primary indication of the fertility of the soils and soils have more carbon than the atmosphere and vegetation together, which means that the carbon stored in soils and knowing how to guard it is essential for the overall health of the ecosystem, and consequently for everyone on the planet.

Land PKS (Land Potential Knowledge System) is design to enhance the data available to land managers in making decisions about efficiency and sustainability. It helps users navigate information on soils and climate to provide simple to use locally relevant information that can help optimize the land management decision. It was create by the governments of Kenya in Kenya and Namibia and is currently being test in Tanzania and the United States.